Water is one of the basic needs of life. However, for a prolonged life it needs to be pure and safe for drinking all the time as it can impact one’s health. This particular source of life is also one of the best solvents. Dissolving with any substance is its specialty. But this ability is fatal for the health of others as it can also dissolve with pollutants and harmful chemicals in it. It is often a life-threatening situation when the polluted water is consumed.
Impurities such as chemicals, viruses, bacteria and harmful microorganisms in water can destroy one’s health drastically. Such water can cause waterborne diseases. For preventing such health-related diseases, one requires one of the Best Water Purifiers.
In the case of swimming pools, chlorine treatment of water is one of the best ways to treat water. But chlorinated water can be harmful to humans. The tap-water contains some amount of chlorine in it which needs to be filtrated before drinking. Lead is one of the toxic substances found in water. It is indicated by experts that one of the main causes of learning disabilities in children is lead. The filters of water purifier remove it. This helps in avoiding waterborne diseases.
By having a water purifier, one saves a lot of money because there won’t be any need to buy costly bottled water. If one drinks bottled water every day, a huge amount of water bottles are thrown away. In spite of these bottles being recycled, there is still a strain on the environment. As water purifier removes all the toxic contaminants, one’s family is protected well against various types of diseases. The substances present in the water decay or rot over time. This makes the water foul. To prevent this one needs a purifier.
The general impurities in the water can be categorized into the following groups:
1. Physical impurities
a) Turbidity – The turbidity of water specifies the presence of colloidal matter such as fine muds and clay. In a number of cases, the salts of iron and manganese are responsible for the turbidity in the water. The colloidal substance and salts can be very injurious to human health.
b) Colour – The water gets color from the discharge of some industries such as tannery, textile industry, paper industry, etc. Those discharge mainly contain lignin, tannin and other waste products which may impart color.
c) Taste and Odour – The release of waste products from some industries and trade comprise of smelling chemical compounds which further affects the taste and odor of the water. Generally, the smelling compounds are sulfide, chlorine, phenol, etc. Such compounds make the water very nasty to consume.
d) Floating Particles – At various places, the dumping grounds for wreckages and garbage are close to the river. In the rainy season these garbages are carried by rainwater which later appears as floating matters in the river. When these impurities are mixed with the groundwater, this very water becomes the water source of billions. And the consumption of this water may lead to fatal diseases.
e) Radioactive Substances – The nuclear power plant, nuclear research center and industries dealing with radioactive substance may discharge waste products which may have radioactive property. This property seriously affects human life and aquatic life as radioactive radiation may lead to a variety of cancers and birth defects as well.
2. Chemical Impurities
The waste products of few trades such as battery factory, explosive factories, etc. contain acids. And when these waste products are openly discharged into the river, then it will be harmful to the aquatic life and will automatically rescind the self-purification property of the water. The waste products of industries sometimes contain alkalies also. These alkalies have the same effects as that of acids. The waste products of some industries such as fertilizer industry, coke oven industry, etc. contain certain inorganic compounds. These compounds mainly consist of chloramines, sulfide, ammonia, etc. which are toxic to aquatic life.
3. Biological Impurities
The development of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc. in water is caused due to a variety of reasons like the fermentation of dead animals, rotting woods and also due to the unhygienic discharge of sewage into the river without proper treatment. Most of the time these bacterial loads are responsible for waterborne diseases.
Depending on the method of purification used to treat the water, water purifiers can be classified into 5 types.
- Reverse Osmosis(RO)
- Activated Carbon
- Sediment filter
1.RO Water Purifier
RO water purifier uses a semipermeable membrane to purify the water from impurities. To pass water through the RO membrane, the purifier uses a water pump that pressurizes raw water to pass through the RO membrane with a good amount of pressure. RO water purifier is the most effective purifier to purify hard, saltwater containing dissolved solids and chemicals. Only RO water purifier is capable of removing metal particles like lead, arsenic, chlorine, fluoride, nitrates, and sulfates. If you have this type of water purifier at home, rest assured and get purified, safe drinking water.
RO water purifier types:
RO water purifiers can be further classified into two types purifiers depending on the place where they are mounted:-
- Wall-mounted or Tabletop RO water purifier
- Under-Sink or Under-Counter RO water purifier
The wall-mounted or tabletop water purifier is mounted on the wall or on the kitchen table, whereas Undersink water purifier placed underneath of the kitchen sink so it is hidden.
Advantages of RO water purifier
- RO water purifier removes dissolved lead, arsenic, chlorine, fluoride, nitrates, and sulfates.
- Along with these RO water purifier is capable of removing waterborne disease-causing microorganisms like bacteria, viruses. Germs dead bodies are removed along with wastewaters so that purified water is free of germ dead bodies.
- RO water purifier improves the taste and odor of water by removing the contaminants that causing bad taste and odor.
Disadvantages of RO water purifier
- RO water purifier requires electricity to run. Even the purifier needs running water with optimum water pressure to work properly.
- RO water purifier produces a lot of dissolved solids, germs, which are flushed through the drain along with wastewater. While purifying 10 liters of water, RO water purifier drains out approximately 5-liters wastewater.
2.UV Water Purifier
UV or Ultraviolet water purifier is a proven technology that capable of killing waterborne disease-causing microorganisms, pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and cysts. This environmental-friendly technology doesn’t use any chemicals during the purification process. UV water purifier consists of a UV lamp tube through which the water has to pass during purification. UV lamp releases UV lights and the running water gets exposed to UV light, where germs like bacteria and viruses are damaged and made inactive. However the germs dead bodies remain in the water, but these are not harmful for human health anymore.
The UV water purifier is ideal for low TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) water like lakes, river water. UV water purifiers are incapable of treating hard water, which generally has a higher TDS level. Just as a UF water purifier, UV water purifier does not remove chemicals present in the water.
Advantages of UV water purifier
- It has a very low maintenance cost. You can change the UV lamp once in a while when it stops working.
- High purification rate. The UV water purifier is capable to deliver 2 to 4 liters of purified water within a minute. However other RO, UF, Activated Carbon water purifier takes several minutes to purify even one-liter of water.
- Low energy consumption. UV water purifier only uses electricity for the electric bulb to function.
Disadvantages of UV water purifier
- Germs bodies remain in purified water. In case of fewer germs not exposed to UV light and remains alive or redevelop and reproduce their population and makes water impure.
- UV purifiers do not improve water taste or color.
- Does not affect turbid, mud water. Undissolved solids like mud and other organic solid matter become an obstacle for the UV light to pass through the water.
- UV water purifier does not purify hard water.
- UV water purifier does not remove toxic chemicals.
3.UF(UltraFilteration) Water Purifier
UF or Ultrafiltration uses hollow fibers of a membrane made up of a thin layer of material which is able to separate water and other particles present in the water. When water is fed through the UF membrane, bacteria, and viruses, suspended solids, are retained in the UF membrane. Basically, UF is very much alike to RO technology, the only the difference is RO can block very minute particles, whereas UF can not. UF water purifier is ideal for the places where the presence of chemical contamination is low because UF can not remove chemical particles present in the water. The important thing to remember is that UltraFilteration can not filter hard water.
Advantages of UF water purifier
- It can work without electricity. One can just pour unfiltered water on the upper storage tank and purified water will be collected in the lower storage tank. You do not need to bother about water pressure.
- It can work in low water pressure conditions.
- It does not use chemicals. UF implements hollow membranes to filtrate bacteria and viruses.
- It can filter even muddy waters also. UF is capable of removing mold and germs from water, whereas other water purifiers like UV are incapable of purifying muddy water.
- UF membrane can be cleaned numerous times. Pesticides, chemicals can not damage UF hollow membranes. In favorable conditions, the UF membrane can be used for up to 3 to 5 years.
Disadvantages of UF water purifier
- It can not filtrate hard water. UF can not remove dissolved solids which cause the hardness of the water.
- Frequent cleaning is required. In UF water purifier germs are trapped, blocked in UF membrane and stay there until the UF membrane is manually cleaned.
4.Activated Carbon Water Purifier
Activated Carbon is a form of carbon that is created of coal, coconut shell, nutshells, wood that is shredded into small pieces. Activated Carbon removes most of the waterborne disease-causing bacterias, pesticides and heavy metals. Activated carbon also removes the chemicals that make water taste or smell bad. It is the most effective way to remove chlorine from water. Activated Carbon uses a method known as “Adsorption” to purify water. During this process whatever chemicals and metals present in the water stick to the Activated Carbon surface and removed in the process. When water passes through the Activated Carbon, chemicals like chlorine and other pesticides also sticks to it and purified water is stored in the lower storage tank.
Advantages of Activated Carbon
- It removes disease-causing pesticides and toxic chemicals like Chlorine.
- It also removes heavy metal particles.
- Plays a vital role in making water smell and taste good.
- Activated carbon helps improve the RO membrane life-period by blocking chlorine and other particles which are harmful to the RO membrane.
Disadvantages of Activated Carbon
- Activated Carbon does not remove dissolved salts which causing hardness of the water.
- Does not removes bacteria and viruses. In case of improper maintenance, higher growth of bacteria can be seen on the Activated Carbon surface.
This filter is a pre-filter, which mean it is used along with other water purifiers like RO, UV. The impurities which are collected at the bottom of the water or liquid is known as sediment. Sediment may consist of rust flakes of metal pipes, sand or mud particles. It removes the turbidity of water. So basically sediment filter catches the unwanted dust, mud particles present in the water.
Most of the sediment filters are made up of cotton, polyester fibers. Sediment filter comes in a round shape, stay in a plastic sealed housing container. The sediment filter is used at the point just before any other water purifier water inlet. When water is passing through the sediment filter whatever dirt, dust particles are trapped in it. The water output of the sediment filter is connected to RO or UV water purifier as water inlet.
Advantages of Sediment filter
- It removes dirt, dust, rust, mud particles present in water.
- It removes any visible pollutants during pre-filtration, which may further enter into the other purification system and damage the system entirely and it increases RO, UV lifespan.
Disadvantages of Sediment filter
- It does not remove dissolved solids, heavy metals, bacteria, and viruses.